Exploring the History of the Barbary Coast in San Francisco
San Francisco’s Barbary Coast, a notorious red-light district, holds a captivating history that spans from the Gold Rush to the early 20th century. In this article, we’ll delve into the fascinating tale of the Barbary Coast, including its birth during the California Gold Rush, its tumultuous early years, and its transformation before and after the devastating 1906 earthquake. We’ll also explore the demise of this once-thriving district and its impact on San Francisco’s cultural landscape. So, grab a cup of coffee and join us on a journey through time as we uncover the secrets of the Barbary Coast.
The Birth of the Barbary Coast
- The Barbary Coast emerged during the California Gold Rush of 1849.
- San Francisco’s population exploded from a few hundred to over 25,000 in just two years.
- Lawlessness, gambling, and prostitution were rampant during the early decades of the Barbary Coast.
- The district attracted miners, sailors, and adventurers in search of entertainment.
- San Francisco was a “wide-open” city, with little police control over activities like gambling, drinking, and prostitution.
- Criminal gangs, such as The Hounds and the Sydney Ducks, added to the chaos.
- Vigilante justice and frequent uprisings characterized this era.
The Evolution of the Barbary Coast
- In the latter half of the 19th century, San Francisco saw administrative graft and persistent lawlessness.
- Vigilante justice temporarily restored order but couldn’t last.
- The district earned its name, inspired by the Barbary Coast of North Africa, known for piracy and predatory dives.
- The Barbary Coast continued to attract a diverse clientele, thriving on its reputation for debauchery.
Before the 1906 Earthquake
- Despite commercial growth, lawlessness persisted.
- Drinking establishments, dance halls, and concert saloons dominated Pacific Street.
- The “pretty waiter girls” were a major attraction, often exploiting customers.
- Prostitution, drugs, and shanghaiing (kidnapping sailors) were common.
After the 1906 Earthquake
- The earthquake and fire of 1906 destroyed most buildings on Pacific Street.
- Civic boosters saw an opportunity to gentrify the Barbary Coast and invested in reconstruction.
- Pacific Street was rebuilt with dance halls and bars but was tamer than before.
- Prostitution persisted until Mayor James Rolph’s crackdown in 1917.
Demise of the Barbary Coast
- A shift in political policy led to reforms in 1911.
- The police commission imposed restrictions, prohibiting dancing and women in saloons.
- Some businesses closed or transformed into straight saloons.
- The Red Light Abatement Act of 1917 closed brothels, and the excitement of Terrific Street faded.
Legacy in Popular Culture
- The Barbary Coast’s colorful history has inspired numerous films, including “The Penalty,” “Barbary Coast,” and “San Francisco.”
- It has also appeared in television series like “Barbary Coast” and “Warrior.”
- The district’s impact on entertainment, dance, and music during its heyday left a lasting legacy.
The Barbary Coast, with its wild and lawless past, remains an intriguing part of San Francisco’s history. As you explore this vibrant city today, you can still find remnants of its colorful past in the streets, buildings, and stories that continue to captivate both locals and visitors.
The Barbary Coast in San Francisco is a treasure trove of intriguing and fun facts that shed light on its colorful history.
16 fascinating facts to pique your curiosity about the Barbary Coast:
- Gold Rush Origins: The Barbary Coast was born during the California Gold Rush of 1849, when the city’s population skyrocketed due to the influx of gold-seeking miners.
- Lawlessness Prevailed: In the early days, San Francisco had little to no police control over activities like gambling, drinking, and prostitution on the Barbary Coast.
- The Sydney Ducks: A group of ex-convicts from Australia, known as the Sydney Ducks, settled in San Francisco and became a dominant presence in the district.
- Vigilante Justice: Vigilance Committees formed to combat the lawlessness, and they were known for their swift justice, including public hangings.
- “Shanghaiing” Origin: The term “shanghaiing,” meaning kidnapping sailors for forced labor on ships, was first coined on the Barbary Coast.
- “Wide-Open” City: San Francisco was often referred to as a “wide-open” city due to its lax enforcement of social rules and regulations.
- The Pretty Waiter Girls: Attractive waitresses, known as the “pretty waiter girls,” were employed in saloons to entice customers, but they sometimes drugged and robbed them.
- Diverse Entertainment: The district offered a wide range of entertainment, including dance halls, concert saloons, and melodeons, which featured can-can dancers.
- Terrific Street: After the 1906 earthquake and fire, the Barbary Coast was rebuilt and earned a new nickname, “Terrific Street,” known for its vibrant music and dance scene.
- Dance Hall Inventions: Iconic dance steps like the Texas Tommy and the Turkey Trot were invented on Terrific Street.
- Transition to Gentrification: Civic boosters saw an opportunity to gentrify the Barbary Coast after the earthquake, transforming it into a more acceptable entertainment area.
- Terrific Street’s Decline: The crackdown on dancing in establishments that served alcohol and the prohibition of women as patrons led to the decline of Terrific Street.
- Red Light Abatement Act: In 1917, the Red Light Abatement Act forced the closure of brothels on the Barbary Coast.
- Influence on Entertainment: The Barbary Coast’s lively entertainment scene influenced early jazz and vaudeville, leaving a lasting impact on American culture.
- Notable Performers: National talents like Sophie Tucker, Sid LeProtti, and Jelly Roll Morton performed on Terrific Street.
- Legacy in Popular Culture: The Barbary Coast’s colorful history has been depicted in films and television series, including “Barbary Coast” and “San Francisco.”
These facts offer a glimpse into the wild, untamed, and vibrant world of the Barbary Coast, making it a captivating chapter in San Francisco’s history.
Explore the Barbary Coast Trail
Barbary Coast Trail, is a historic walking trail with bronze medallions throughout the city. The Barbary Coast Trail is San Francisco’s official historical walking tour. The trail is marked with 180 bronze medallions and arrows embedded in the sidewalk, making it easy to follow from one end to the other. Along the way, you’ll discover San Francisco’s dynamic history from the Gold Rush to the 1906 Earthquake and Fire to the present.
Information provided by Wikipedia